Bristol Tramways

Owner Bristol Corporation (initial Redland route only); Bristol Tramways Company Ltd (subsequent routes)
Opened 9th August 1875 (horse)
Operator (lessee) Bristol Tramways Company Ltd (builder and owner of subsequent routes)
Took over (track) 1882 (from Bristol Corporation - Redland route)
1st October 1887 (with the Bristol Carriage Company [cab and vehicle hire firm]) to form the Bristol Tramways and Carriage Company Ltd - later (1892) becoming part of the Imperial Tramway group
First electric route 14th October 1895
Last horse tram 21st December 1900
Taken over 1929 (controlling interest acquired by the Great Western Railway)
Taken over 1st October 1931 (controlling interest sold to the Western National Omnibus Company Limited, a subsidiary of Thomas Tilling Limited in which the GWR also had an interest)
Took over December 1936 (Bath Electric Tramways Limited)
Took over 17th April 1937 (Weston-super-Mare and District Tramways [electric]) - system immediately closed and service replaced with buses
Taken over 1st October 1937 (Bristol Joint Services, a joint undertaking of Bristol Corporation and the Bristol Tramways and Carriage Company Ltd)
Closed 12th April 1941 (due to enemy action)
Length 31.10 miles
Gauge 4ft 8½ins

Button description (Pattern 1)
BT&CCLtd monogram (entwined initials)
Materials known Brass
Button Line reference [113/15A]

Button description (Pattern 2) Elaborate script initials: 'BTCCL'
Materials known Nickel; chrome; brass
Button Line reference [113/15B]

Comments The Bristol Tramways and Carriage Company Ltd was dominated by the Bristol-based enterpreneur Sir George White (elevated to a baronet in 1904) and the 'White' family, as well as many of their friends and close associates. Sir George White was chairman of the company from 1900 until his death in 1916, running the company as part of the White-family dominated Imperial Tramways Company (purchased 1892). He also drove the founding of London United Tramways (1894), before going on to launch the Bristol Aeroplane Company in 1910 and Bristol Motors (cars, lorries and buses) two years later. Sir George's nephew also played a key role, initially by representing the family on the LUT board, and later as Chairman of both Bristol Tramways and the ITC. The family sold their controlling interest in the Bristol Tramways and Carriage Company Ltd in 1929, and the ITC was officially liquidated the following year.

Stylistically the Pattern 1 button looks to be the earlier of the two, and it is frequently sold as such. It has also been suggested that this button may have originally been an issue of the Bristol and Taunton Canal Company Limited, later reused by the tramway company. Personally I'm disinclined to agree with this, though it is certainly not without precedent. However, given the regularity with which it turns up, it has to have been used by a company with a significant number of employees - relatively recently - and the Bristol Tramways and Carriage Company Limited certainly fits that bill. The Pattern 2 lettering (script initials) was certainly in use on tram cars by 1908, so it is likely that the Pattern 1 button was replaced in the Edwardian era.